What is hypertension? Types / Causes, Symptoms of hypertension



Hypertension is a disease of vascular regulation in which elevation of arterial pressure is above the normal range. Hypertension or high blood pressure is a common condition in which the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your blood vessels is too high.

Blood pressure measurement shows how much blood is passing through your blood vessels and the amount of resistance. Narrow arteries do more resistance.

What is blood pressure?

Blood pressure is the force that your blood applies against the walls of blood vessels. This pressure is due to the resistance of blood vessels and heart functioning.

The heart pushes blood through the arteries, the blood puts pressure on the artery walls, which is called blood pressure and arteries carry blood from the heart to the other parts of the body. Blood pressure normally changes throughout the day based on the body movements.

How the blood pressure and circulatory system work?

Tissues and organs of the body need oxygenated blood to survive and function properly, that our circulatory system carries throughout the body. When the heart supplies blood, it creates pressure through a network of blood vessels, which include arteries, veins and capillaries. This blood pressure is because of two forces.

The first force is created as blood pumps out of the heart and into the arteries.

The second force occurs when heart rests between heart beats.

These two forces are considered in numbers for blood pressure reading.

Types / Causes

01) Primary Hypertension

It’s happen without systemic cause. For example:

  • Family history
  • Prolonged mental tension
  • Arterial degeneration
  • Hormonal or metabolic disturbance

02) Secondary Hypertension

It happens due to general and pathological conditions. For example:

  • Kidney disease
  • Endocrine disorders
  • Renal artery obstruction
  • Enlarged prostate
  • Toxaemia in pregnancy
  • Over body weight
  • Excessive sodium intake
  • Obesity
  • Smoking
  • Less fruit and vegetables intake
  • Alcohol
  • Unhealthy lifestyle

03) Borderline Hypertension

It’s can be defined as intermittent elevation of B.P with normal readings.

04) Malignant Hypertension

It is a syndrome of markedly elevated blood pressure (above 140 mm Hg) associated with papilledema.

05) Benign Hypertension

Benign hypertension usually of long duration and mild to moderate severity may be primary or secondary.

06) White Coat Hypertension 

It’s happen due to anxiety only at a time of measuring blood pressure. 


Hypertension is generally a silent killer. Many people do not experience any symptoms. However the followings are some symptoms of severe hypertension:

  • Morning Occipital Headache
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness
  • Fatigue
  • Chest pain
  • Blurring vision
  • Blood in the urine
  • Palpitation
  • Epistaxis (bleeding from the nose)
  • Tinnitus (ringing in ears)

Diagnostic Evaluation

  • By measuring B.P
  • Chest X-ray
  • Urine test
  • Blood test
  • History collection
  • Physical examination


Hypertension can lead severe health complications and primary risk factor for:

  • Heart attack
  • Heart failure
  • Aneurysm
  • Stroke
  • Renal failure
  • Cerebral haemorrhage
  • Damage of eyes
  • Damage of blood vessels

Recommendations to treat Hypertension

Treatment for hypertension includes both medication and healthy lifestyle management. Lifestyle adjustment is the critical and first-line step in preventing and treating high blood pressure. We summary some recommendations here:

  • Aerobic exercise on at least 5 days of the week with some suitable activities like walking, jogging, cycling or swimming.
  • Avoid or manage stress. Follow some techniques to relief stress such as meditation, warm baths, yoga, long walks, watching favourite programs or get to gathers.
  • Always take your medication on time to manage hypertension. Doctors often recommend a low dose at first and increase eventually.
  • Reduce the amount of sodium in your diet to decrease the risk of hypertension and related health problems. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends sodium intake under 5 g a day.
  • Limit the alcohol intake to two drinks a day for men, and one drink a day for women, as excessive alcohol consumption can increase blood pressure.
  • People with Hypertension should eat as little saturated and total fat as possible. Eating more fruits, vegetables, low fat dairy products, whole grains, fish rich in omega 3, olive oil, skinless poultry and high fiber foods can help to reduce or manage high blood pressure.
  • Lose weight if you are overweight.
  • Quit smoking to reduce the risk of hypertension and other serious health issues.
  • Using probiotic supplements for at least 8 weeks may benefit people with high blood pressure.
  • Doctors may recommend you to start using the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet to manage your high blood pressure, because it is a flexible and balanced eating plan.
  • Eat more potassium rich foods like banana. It helps to release sodium from the body and decrees the pressure on blood vessels.

Home Remedies for Hypertension

  • Hibiscus tea exceptionally lowers blood pressure, when it is slightly elevated.
  • Garlic can reduce hypertension by increasing the body’s production of nitric oxide. Garlic smooths muscles to relax and dilates the blood vessels.
  • Lemon lowers blood pressure and cholesterol level and also makes blood vessels soft and flexible.
  • Ginger contains salicylates that lowers blood pressure and acts as a blood thinner.
  • Cinnamon is another tasty home remedy to bring the blood pressure numbers down.
  • Honey contains antioxidant compounds that help to lower blood pressure and reduce the risk of heart disease.
  • Cucumber contains a lot of nutrients like fiber, potassium and magnesium which are effective for regulating blood pressure.
  • Apple cider vinegar helps reduce weight by improving metabolism and reducing water retention, and a healthy weight is essential for normal blood pressure.

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